What is #13Aban?
13 Aban is about the beginning of the Iran hostage crisis with America that began 31 years ago today.
November 3, 2010 – The Green students of Azad University will hold a gathering this Thursday for 13 Aban in commemoration and remembrance of last year’s protests. This Tweet below though has corrected me that the protests were against the regime. Yes, sometimes the 140 characters on Twitter can get me in trouble with not providing enough of an explanation of where I am going with the information. Thank you for the information.
Iran hostage crisis
|Iran-United States hostage crisis|
A defaced Great Seal of the United States at the former U.S. embassy, Tehran, Iran, as it appeared in 2004
|Commanders and leaders|
| Ruhollah Khomeini
| Jimmy Carter
George H. W. Bush
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. 52 US citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamist students and militants took over the Embassy of the United States in support of the Iranian Revolution.
Sixty-six Americans were taken captive when Iranian militants seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran on Nov. 4, 1979, including three who were at the Iranian Foreign Ministry. Six more Americans escaped and of the 66 who were taken hostage, 13 were released on Nov. 19 and 20, 1979; one was released on July 11, 1980, and the remaining 52 were released on Jan. 20, 1981.
The episode reached a climax when, after failed attempts to negotiate a release, the United States military attempted a rescue operation, Operation Eagle Claw, on April 24, 1980, which resulted in a failed mission, the destruction of two aircraft and the deaths of eight American servicemen and one Iranian civilian. It ended with the signing of the Algiers Accords in Algeria on January 19, 1981. The hostages were formally released into United States custody the following day, just minutes after the new American president Ronald Reagan was sworn in.
The crisis has been described as an entanglement of “vengeance and mutual incomprehension”. In Iran, despite freezing of all Iranian assets held in the United States (Executive Order 12170), the hostage taking was widely seen as a blow against the U.S, and its influence in Iran, its perceived attempts to undermine the Iranian Revolution, and its long-standing support of the recently overthrown government of the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The Shah had been restored to power in a 1953 coup against a democratically-elected nationalist Iranian government organized by the CIA at the American embassy and had recently been allowed into the United States for medical treatment. In the United States, the hostage-taking was seen as an outrage violating a centuries-old principle of international law granting diplomats immunity from arrest and diplomatic compounds sovereignty in their embassies.
The crisis has also been described as the “pivotal episode” in the history of Iran – United States relations. In the U.S., some political analysts believe the crisis was a major reason for U.S. President Jimmy Carter‘s defeat in the November 1980 presidential election. In Iran, the crisis strengthened the prestige of the Ayatollah Khomeini and the political power of those who supported theocracy and opposed any normalization of relations with the West. The crisis also marked the beginning of U.S. legal action, or economic sanctions against Iran, that further weakened economic ties between Iran and the United States.
This is leading up to the next significant date known as 16Azar – Student Day.
Student Day (Iran)
Student Day (Persian: روز دانشجو) is the anniversary of the murder of three students of University of Tehran on December 7, 1953 (16 Azar 1332 in the Iranian calendar) by Iranian police in the Pahlavi era. Every year there are local demonstrations at many universities organised by students. The government also organises a national demonstration which sometimes clashes with student organised protests.
It is commemorated both by religious and secular student movements. Ahmad Ghandchi who belonged to Jebhe-e Melli and two other students, Shariat-Razavi and Bozorg-Nia who were claimed by Hezb-e Tudeh, were killed when the police forces opened fire on the students of University of Tehran going on strike in protest at Nixon’s visit to Iran, following the coup d’état of 1953.
On the anniversary of Student Day in 2009, large student protests broke out in opposition to the 2009 Iranian Presidential election. See: Timeline of the 2009 Iranian election protests#December 7.