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Enlightenment

December 15, 2009

I find the most interesting concepts Googled in reference to this blog. The interaction with your thoughts take me on paths I would not have concluded on my own. Yesterday I saw “Contemporary Model Of Imprisonment”. Here is a snapshot of my morning studies. Thanks for the insight to who ever contemplated these topics while visiting.

Just Deserts Model:

The notion that criminal offenders deserve the punishment they receive at the hands of the law and that punishments should be appropriate to the type and severity of crime committed.

Deterrence – the prevention of crime

Specific deterrence – a goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality.

General deterrence – a goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent others from committing crimes similar to the one for which a particular offender is being sentenced

Justice is not swift!  

I did a little research and it lead me to this excellent power point, here are the highlights: Criminology Today: Where do theories come from?

During the eighteenth century, “Enlightenment” was the social movement of ideas:

Empiricism:  the doctrine that all knowledge is derived from sense experience.

Rationally:  agreeable to reason; reasonable; sensible: a rational plan for economic development.

Free will: the doctrine that the conduct of human beings expresses personal choice and is not simply determined by physical or divine forces.

Humanism: a variety of ethical theory and practice that emphasizes reason, scientific inquiry, and human fulfillment in the natural world and often rejects the importance of belief in God.

Natural law:

The philosophical perspective that certain immutable laws are fundamental to human nature and can be readily ascertained through reason.  Human-made laws (positive law), in contrast, are said to derive from human experience and history – both of which are subject to continual change.

Natural rights:

Thoughts that individuals retain in the face of government action and interests. Thomas Jefferson – wrote of inalienable rights to “life, liberty, property,” – such rights were naturally due all men and women because they were inherent in the social contract between citizens and their government.

NATURAL LAW TODAY

Many people today still hold that the basis for various existing criminal laws can be found in immutable moral principles or in some other identifiable aspect fo the natural order. The Ten Commandments, “inborn tendencies,” the idea of sin, and perceptions of various forms of order in the universe and in the social world have all provided a basis for the assertion that natural law exists. Example – debate over stem cell research

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