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Large Hadron Collider

November 29, 2009

In progress: still fixing facts and understanding…….I have to fix the neutron portion…Hydrogen: 1 proton, 1 electron, no neutron, etc, etc, etc.

Picture a circle with a black dot in the middle. There is a white dot floating around the outside which is an electron. We are looking at a Hydrogen Atom: black is a proton, white is an electron and an electron is at an energy level that orbits in a shell (energy level – that’s where it comes into quantum theory, it can’t travel from shell to shell until it has a certain quantum of energy). When it travels from one quantum to another quantum, it puts out a photon, which is energy and a particle, but you see it as light. There is a theory that it is a transfer between mass and energy.

Picture the same thing with 2 circles (it has two protons). This is what they use in thermo nuclear weapons. You understand it and hear it called “heavy water”.

Now picture 3 circles, which is now 2 neutrons and 1 proton. That is tridium (it’s an isotope of hydrogen). this is the highest thermo nuclear fuel. They use the last two I’m discussing in a hydrogen bomb.

As you go up the periodic table, when you get two protons, and two neutrons, you get two electrons. For every proton you get an electron, and as you move up the periodic table the numbers get heavier. The isotopes fall somewhere in between the two. Like Carbon is 6 and its atomic weight is 12 – in a balanced element, for every proton, you have an neutron in a balanced element, and for every proton you have electron.  Now we are to the nucleus, when you get up to uranium the atomic number is 92 (I think), but it’s weight is 238. When you get into the heavier elements it’s not just x2. It has 92 protons, and it has 146 neutrons. The neutron count changes. The periodic table, for every proton you have an electron, that’s what keeps it electrically neutral.

Plasma: is when you put enough energy into a chemical.

They take hydrogen. You can’t split a proton and neutron apart without using Einsteins theory of relativity: E=mc2.  It describes the power when you try to split the atom. Mass–energy equivalence

Large Hadron Collider

They are going to accelerate this particle they put it into a plasma and strip it of their electron. Put enough energy to it to get the electron off of the nucleus. Now that have a nucleus with a positive charge. It’s a proton and neutron.

Now it’s whirling around and trying to approach the speed of sound with the two of them approaching from opposite direction trying to have them hit. They are watching what happens when they are splitting the nucleus apart and that enters into the String Theory.

A hydrogen atom (numbers are sketchy) in an inch would have 250,000,000 side by side. The power they use to get these to accelerate each other and smash into each other…a nucleus that has no mass what so ever, could power a good size city.

The big bang is basically hydrogen as it’s product. The heavy elements on the periodic table is made in the stars as they are forming. The sun runs on fusion *the mass has so much pressure in the center it is forcing hydrogen together and creating helium 3. You can imagine the pressure (helium should be around 4 protons and 7 neutrons).  The energy of the sun, is only making a light element, so fathom the amount of energy it takes to make a heavy element.

Atom Smasher Works Better Than Expected

Do you know what radiation is: photons, alpha rays, gamma rays, packets of energy, etc. You heard of back ground radiation everywhere you go. Atoms blow themselves up every where you go, carbon 14, Carbon Dating, isotopes of many elements are radio active and just split apart and become unstable and decay, emitting gamma rays, beta, neutrons (little bullets) just at various time frames. They all have their own expiration date. Given an amount of time they give off so much radiation, and that’s how they use Carbon Dating things to know how old something is.

Uranium 238 is everywhere, easy to get, but you can’t put a bunch of it together and make it explode. But Uranium 235 is always giggling, fissionable, unstable material. It’s the odd number at the end. All Uranium only has 1 or 2 % of 235 in 238. They gasify it and then they centrifuge it, and then the heavier element goes off one side and the lighter element goes off the other. It’s hard to obtain but it is a well known process and easy to do.

So trying to figure out what the scientists are trying to do is impossible from this vantage point…..picking up news second and third hand on the internet. Basically, scientists saw something and they are trying to figure out what they saw. They are forcing together a process to either make an element, maybe create a new one all from the internal structure of a nucleus. I wonder if they will be able to measure the isotopes the way they do after a bomb has dropped to figure out how powerful it was? Who knows, I’m not a scientist. I guess it’s difficult to fathom all of the empty space in a nucleus, where there is width and depth but no thickness (parallel universe comes to mind). So shooting lights to hope to see something sometimes is how we figure out what is inside and outside of the nucleus of an atom? Isn’t the mind amazing ….. there are people who are able to know and understand things that are impossible to see, and are able to show us the amount of energy packed inside, once triggered, tapped, or smashed able to implode, explode, and who knows….propel us into a whole new world of discovery.

Sorry for the scientific errors in this, I’m just trying to take away the conspiracy theory to the scientific advances in our time. The theory is if I can understand some basics to simple physics, it will assist me in having better judgement when presented with other things in life that are truly bogus.

Now for a little light reading: Physics For Future Presidents – Chapter 10 Nuclear Weapons.

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